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La vita adulta dell’individuo

La vita adulta può essere suddivisa in due ampi periodi di circa 25 anni l’uno: dai 20 ai 40 anni (il giovane adulto), e dai 40 ai 60 anni (l’età di mezzo). Il periodo di vita che va dai 20 ai 40 anni è caratterizzato da forti contraddizioni; l’individuo da una parte lotta per stabilire il proprio ruolo nella società, dall’altra combatte ancora con i residui dei conflitti dell’infanzia e dell’adolescenza. E’ la fase in cui l’individuo compie le prime scelte importanti che determineranno il suo stile di vita: la scelta di un partner (la creazione di un rapporto a due ha a che fare con aspetti riguardanti l’intimità, la fedeltà, ritenuta da Erikson la spinta alla maturazione da parte dell’individuo a stabilire la propria identità, e l’impegno reciproco), l’inizio di un lavoro (che definisce il ruolo sociale e rende specifica un’identificazione specifica del Sé), la nascita del primo figlio (il ruolo di madre richiede molte energie: le donne hanno appreso a diffidare di ogni sostituto materno nella cura del figlio e non concedono sospensioni alla responsabilità materna, assumendo così un’immagine negativa del proprio ruolo di genitore; il ruolo di padre è ora considerato importantissimo per lo sviluppo emotivo e sociale del figlio, e deve quindi esserci un forte legame attivi tra padre e figlio fin dalla più tenera età). Il periodo che va dai 40 ai 60 anni è caratterizzato da un’evoluzione del corpo da un punto di vista fisiologico e biologico, tale da poter avere conseguenze da punto di vista clinico. L’individuo, in particolare quello di sesso maschile, risulta più vulnerabile ai disturbi cardiovascolari (è stata identificata un tipo di personalità che presenta una predisposizione in particolare all’infarto: il Tipo A, competitivo, impaziente, aggressivo, opposto al Tipo B, paziente, tranquillo e privo di ambizioni). Per quanto riguarda la donna i cambiamenti più importanti riguardano il declino nel peso delle ovaie e la crescente diminuzione del ciclo produttivo, fino ad arrivare alla menopausa, che porta a tre tipi di disturbi: quelli legati alle funzioni autonome (vampate di calore, sudorazione, brividi etc), quelli di origine somatica (cambiamento degli organi genitali, nelle ossa etc) e quelli più psicologici, quali cefalea, nervosismo, depressione, capogiri etc. Nell’uomo l’andropausa è più legata ad una modificazione psicologica, una crisi psicosociale piuttosto che eventi di tipo ormonale o biologico. Secondo alcuni autori avviene una vera e propria crisi dell’età di mezzo, che inizierebbe un po’ prima dei 40 anni e continuerebbe per alcuni anni dopo; l’idea di un particolare passaggio che avverrebbe proprio intorno a quest’età è stata introdotta da Jung (“mezzogiorno della vita”, così definisce lui questa fascia d’età), il quale pone il concetto di individuazione, inteso come un processo evolutivo tramite il quale una persona diviene ancora di più se stessa, acquisendo una propria identità più consapevole e determinata e utilizzando le risorse interne che gli restano, proprio in questo periodo. L’individuazione, non senza una transizione sofferta e con sconfitte ricorrenti, porta l’individuo a raggiungere una unica, vera struttura di personalità, prima in parte oscurata e distorta dalle domande e dalle circostanze esterne. La psicodinamica identifica tre particolari polarità nel periodo della mezza età: giovane-vecchio, maschile-femminile, attaccamento-separazione. Il confronto tra il giovane-vecchio si ha all’internodi se stessi, e si ricerca un nuovo equilibrio fra di essi: il processo verso la maturità porta con sé un aumento delle qualità del vecchio, ossia giudizio e ampiezza di visione, ma hanno valore solo se continuano ad essere vitalizzate dall’energia giovanile, ossia immaginazione, fantasia e gusto del diverso (giovane-vecchio secondo Jung sono archetipi). Il fallimento dell’integrazione della polarità può condurre, secondo la Klein, sia al sentimento di essere oppresso dal lutto e dalla perdita sia ad una regressione alla posizione schizo-paranoidea: la persona si aggrappa alla giovinezza (oggetto buono) ed impiega la misura totale della repressione contro l’età anziana, vissuta come persecutoria e mortifera (oggetto cattivo); ne derivano condotte di persone che tendono a rimanere giovani in modo compulsivo, perdono la partecipazione alla vita sociale, sperimentano depressione e si preparano ad una modalità di vecchiaia inadeguata. La seconda polarità, quella maschile-femminile, si riferisce all’ambizione, la forza, la competizione, l’aggressività (maschile ? Animus di Jung) contrapposta a mancanza di competitività, sottomissione, debolezza d’idee etc (femminile ? Anima di Jung). L’uomo in questa fase deve essere in grado di integrare i lati femminili del Sé, accettando la propria fragilità e limitatezza; se questo non avviene, e il cambiamento non viene accettato, subisce un disadattamento e si predispone alla formazione di sintomi neurotici e psicosomatici. Nella donna invece si assiste ad una condizione depressiva, qualora questa non sia in grado di sviluppare la crescita d nuove potenzialità, quali la spinta alla realizzazione sociale autonoma, l’industriosità etc, tipicamente maschili. Per quanto riguarda la terza polarità, quella attaccamento-separazione, nella prima fase della vita adulta la domanda di realtà fa pendere l’equilibrio, tra attaccamento e separazione, verso un coinvolgimento per il mondo esterno. E’ questo il momento della formazione della famiglia e dell’inizio di un’occupazione stabile; verso la conclusione della prima parte dell’età adulta l’individuo ha raggiunto solitamente una certa stabilità ed ha più tempo per rivolgersi delle domande di fondo. Nella misura in cui l’individuo integra attaccamento e separazione assume sempre più una concezione personale della realtà nella contrapposizione tra il bene e il male e della loro possibile coesistenza in sé e negli altri; quanto più sarà in equidistanza critica tra il Sé e la realtà, tanto meglio potrà corrispondere alle esigenze dei figli, perché lo sviluppo della saggezza è conseguente all’attenuazione dell’eccessiva valorizzazione di specifiche capacità e conoscenze tipica di età precedenti.

Da appunti su “Psicologo verso la professione”, di Paolo Moderato, Francesco Rovetto

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